Turkish Journal of Surgery

Turkish Journal of Surgery

ISSN: 2564-6850
e-ISSN: 2564-7032


Tonguç Utku Yılmaz1, Halil İbrahim Taş2, Ezgi Uçar1, Cem Cerit3, Altay Çelebi4, Sertaç Ata Güler1, Zafer Utkan1

1Department of General Surgery, Kocaeli University School of Medicine, Kocaeli, Turkey
2Department of Psychiatry, Çanakkale 18 Mart University School of Medicine, Çanakkale, Turkey
3Department of Psychiatry, Kocaeli University School of Medicine, Kocaeli, Turkey
4Division of Gastroenterology, Kocaeli University School of Medicine, Kocaeli, Turkey


Objective: Constipation is the most commonly seen defecation problem related to several environmental factors. Defecation is learned in the childhood anal period in which anal characteristic features appear. Problems in the childhood anal period may affect not only characters but also defecation function. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between constipation and anal characteristic features of participants with functional constipation.

Material and Methods: Patients with functional constipation were included into the study according to the ROME III criteria. Patients with irritable bowel disease, slow transit constipation, outlet obstruction constipation, malignancy, and psychiatric diseases were excluded from the study. Patients filled out Personality Belief Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Obsessive Belief Questionnaire. The results were compared with healthy individuals.

Results: A total of 47 patients with functional constipation were included in the study. Avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, antisocial, narcissistic, and paranoid personality traits were found to be higher in patients with constipation than in the control group. Perfectionism/certainty, importance and control, and hospital anxiety scores were found to be higher in patients with constipation than in the control group.

Conclusion: Constipation may be related to several factors, such as socioeconomic environment, emotional stress, age, and diet, among others. Here, it was found that anal-retentive behavior features are prominent in functional constipation. Biofeedback, which can be regarded as psychotherapy of defecation control, can be used for treatment.

Keywords: Anal-retentive, biofeedback, constipation, childhood, personality disorders

Cite this article as: Yılmaz TU, Taş Hİ, Uçar E, Cerit C, Çelebi A, Güler SA, Utkan Z. Relationship between functional constipation and anal-retentive behavior features. Turk J Surg 2019; 35 (3): 165-170.

This study was presented at the 20th National Congress of Surgery, 13-17 April 2016, Antalya, Turkey.


Ethics Committee Approval

Ethics committee approval was received for this study from the Ethics Committee of Kocaeli University School of Medicine.

Peer Review

Externally peer-reviewed.

Author Contributions

Concept - T.U.Y., H.İ.T.; Design - T.U.Y., H.İ.T.; Supervision - Z.U., A.Ç.; Resource - E.U., C.C., S.A.G.; Materials - T.U.Y., E.U., S.A.G., C.C.; Data Collection and/or Processing - H.İ.T., E.U., C.C., A.Ç.; Analysis and/or Interpretation - T.U.Y., C.C., Z.U.; Literature Search - H.İ.T., S.A.G., E.U.; Writing Manuscript - T.U.Y., H.İ.T.; Critical Reviews - Z.U., A.Ç.

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflicts os interest to declare.

Financial Disclosure

The authors declared that this study has recieved no financial support.