Colonoscopic perforations: Single center experience and review of the literature
Şükrü Çolak, Bünyamin Gürbulak, Hasan Bektaş, Ekrem Çakar, Yiğit Düzköylü, Savaş Bayrak, Ayhan Güneyi
Clinic of General Surgery, İstanbul Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey
Keywords: Colon perforation, colonoscopy, iatrogenic bowel perforation
Objective: Iatrogenic colonic perforation is a well-known complication that can increase mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing colonoscopy. Closer follow-up and a well-planned treatment strategy are required when perforation arises as a complication. The aims of this study are to (1) report our experience with a large colonoscopy series; (2) evaluate the underlying mechanisms of iatrogenic colonic perforation; (3) discuss the ideal period between onset and treatment; and (4) review the current literature regarding the management of iatrogenic colonic perforations.
Material and Methods: Patients who underwent colonoscopy between January 2005 and May 2015 at a single center were reviewed retrospectively. Procedures during which colonic perforations occurred were documented and analyzed.
Results: Between January 2005 and May 2015, 31,655 patients underwent colonoscopy and 5,214 patients underwent recto-sigmoidoscopy at our center. Thirteen of these procedures were associated with perforation. The perforation rate was found to be 0.041%. The most frequent locations of perforation were (a) the rectosigmoid junction, (b) the proximal rectum, and (c) the sigmoid colon. Management included surgical treatment in 11 patients and conservative management in 2 patients. Twelve patients (92.31%) were discharged uneventfully, and death occurred in one (7.69%) patient.
Conclusion: Although they are rarely encountered, colonic perforations are serious complications of colonoscopy. A high index of clinical suspicion is required for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Age, co-morbidities, the location and size of the perforation, and the time interval between onset and diagnosis should be evaluated, and the treatment approach should be planned accordingly.
Authors declared that the research was conducted according to the principles of the World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki “Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects” (amended in October 2013).
Written informed consent was obtained from patient who participated in this study.
Concept - Ş.Ç.; Design - Ş.Ç., B.G.; Supervision - H.B.; Resource - E.Ç., Ş.B.; Materials - A.G.; Data Collection and/or Processing - Ş.Ç., Ş.B.; Analysis and/or Interpretation - Y.D., B.G.; Literature Search - Y.D., Ş.Ç.; Writing Manuscript - B.G., Ş.Ç.; Critical Reviews - H.B.
No conflict of interest was declared by the authors.
The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.